Composition of kidney stones is relatively well known. Their main components include calcium oxalate, various calcium phosphates, uric acid and magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP). These will identify the vast majority of stones. A few others are useful to know as well. Organic constituents (like cystine, cholesterol, bile salts, hemoglobin and protein); and stone-forming drugs (triamterene, indinavir, the sulfas, opheridine). The greatest challenge is identifying mixtures, especially when protein is present. Composition of the stone and the sequence of the deposited layers provide important diagnostics information.
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